Tolkien’s Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo

I am not going to review J.R.R. Tolkien’s translations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo for one simple reason: I cannot. I would give too much away if I were to summarize all three poems. It is better to go into the stories blind. While I enjoyed all three lays, I have neither the background in poetry nor a knowledge of the art of translation to give a thorough review of Tolkien’s work. I will simply leave you with a sample from each poem to whet your appetite. The book includes a reasonably lengthed introduction to the poems. Unfortunately, I have not read it yet. But when I do, I will write a follow-up post so that you are given a proper introduction to Sir Gawain, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

After the season of summer with its soft breezes,
when Zephyr goes sighing through seeds and herbs,
right glad is the grass that grows in the open,
when the damp dewdrops are dripping from the leaves,
to greet a gay glance of the glistening sun.
But then Harvest hurries in, and hardens it quickly,
warns it before winter to wax to ripeness.
He drives with his drought the dust, till it rises
from the face of the land and flies up aloft;
wild wind in the welkin makes war on the sun,
the leaves loosed from the linden alight on the ground,
and all grey is the grass that green was before:
all things ripen and rot that rose up at first,
and so the year runs away in yesterdays many, and here winter wends again, as by the way of the world

it ought,
until the Michaelmas moon
has winter’s boding brought;
Sir Gawain then full soon of his grievous journey thought. (II, 23)
 

Pearl

Both bliss and grief you have been to me,
But woe far greater hath been my share.
You were caught away from all perils free,
But my pearl was gone, I knew not where;
My sorrow is softened now I it see.
When we parted, too, at one we were;
Now God forbid that we angry be!
We meet on our roads by chance so rare.
I am but mould and good manners miss.
Christ’s mercy, Mary and John: I dare
Only on these to found my bliss. (Part 32)

Sir Orfeo

Sir Orfeo was a king of old,
in England lordship high did hold;
valour he had and hardihood,
a courteous king whose gifts were good,
His father from King Pluto came,
his mother from Juno, king of fame,
who once of old as gods were named
for mighty deeds they did and claimed. 
Sir Orfeo, too, all things beyond
of harping’s sweet delight was fond, 
and sure were all good harpers there
of him to earn them honour fair;
himself he loved to touch the harp
and pluck the strings with fingers sharp. (v. 25-38)

Complete TBR and Suggestions for Buddy-Reads

So, the Top Ten Tuesday meme for today got me thinking about my current TBR. I bought a ton of books in the past year – more than ever in my life. As you may know, up until recently I almost exclusively used the local library. But while I was in graduate school, I obtained quite a few books from the local secondhand bookstore (a few are new). While I bought most of the books for under 7 dollars, I have made it a goal to read 20 of my unread books before buying any new ones, so that I can keep a manageable TBR. In this post, I will list all the unread fiction that I have purchased in the past year or so. I’m leaving out any unread anthologies because I don’t want to read them in one go. If you would like to buddy-read with me any of the books on the list, please indicate the book in the comments section. Here’s my list.

1) O Pioneers! by Willa Cather

2) The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoyevsky (I’ve read half of it)

3) Jonathan Strange & Mr. Norrell by Susanna Clarke (a bargain buy; brand-new hardback with deckled edge paper for 5 dollars!)

4) Great Expectations by Charles Dickens

5) Bleak House by Charles Dickens

6) The Way of Kings (Book 1 of The Stormlight Archive series) by Brandon Sanderson

7) The Tales of Beedle the Bard by J.K. Rowling (the only Harry Potter I own although I have read the 7-book series)

8) Roverandom by J.R.R. Tolkien

9) Beowulf translated by J.R.R. Tolkien

10) The Silmarillion by J.R.R. Tolkien

11) The Children of Hurin by J.R.R. Tolkien

12) I, Claudius by Robert Graves

13) Arms and the Man by Bernard Shaw

14) The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoyevsky

15) Murder in the Cathedral by T.S. Eliot

16) Faust (parts I and II) by Goethe translated by Philip Wayne (1949 edition in perfect condition)

17) Lord Jim by Joseph Conrad

18) The Mayor of Casterbridge by Thomas Hardy

19) Hild by Nicola Griffith

20) Peter Pan & Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens by J.M. Barrie (yes, I’m cheating)

21) Joan of Arc by Mark Twain

22) Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston

23) The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (translated by Nevill Coghill)

24) Woman in White by Wilkie Collins

25) In Praise of Folly by Erasmus of Rotterdam

26) The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco

27) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt

28) The Secret History by Donna Tartt

29) The Divorce Papers by Susan Rieger (a Kindle impulse buy)

30) Sinful Folk by Ned Hayes

31) The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene

Are there any books on this list you’d like to buddy-read with me?

Review of Ginger Pye

What was it about?

Jerry Pye (aged 10) and his sister Rachel (aged 9) wonder whether Gracie the cat would be bothered if the Pyes purchased a dog. Just the other day, Ms. Speedy offered to sell one of her puppies for a dollar. After seeing the puppies in the barn, Jerry and Rachel knew that they just had to have one. Mom said that it was OK and Sam Doody, their high school friend, promised the children a dollar if they would dust the church pews. With the help of 3-year-old Uncle Bennie, Jerry and Rachel dust the pews and purchas their puppy Ginger. But things suddenly go very wrong. The dog hasn’t been in the Pyes household for very long when he’s suddenly taken by a stranger in a yellow hat – or at least they think the thief has a yellow hat for they have spotted it at various locations in town. They don’t, however, know what the thief looks like. Rachel is sure that he must be ugly and sinister. Jerry agrees and draws a likely portrait of the “unsavory character” to give to the local police. Ginger Pye written and illustrated by Eleanor Estes is the 1952 Newbery Medal-winning book about Jerry, Rachel, and Uncle Bennie’s search for a beloved missing dog and his unsavory thief.

What did I think of it?

Eleanor Estes has successfully accomplished a rare feat – writing a compelling story from the perspective of 9 and 10-year-old children. It is difficult to write believable dialogue between children, but there was never a time in the whole book when I felt like the children were acting in ways atypical of their age group. This is probably the primary reason why Ginger Pye was awarded the Newbery Medal in 1952. But this cannot have been the only reason. While I was able to predict early in the book the identity of the thief, a young child would be left guessing until the very end because Rachel and Jerry react very believably to the situations they encounter. I was entertained by the light suspense as well as by the humor. It is worth noting, however, that the eponymous dog is mostly absent from the story, for obvious reasons. Some children see a dog on the cover of a book and assume that it is a “dog book”. In reality, Ginger Pye is mostly about the children who are looking for their dog. The cover and title may be slightly misleading, but the book is exciting just the same. I am glad that I read Ginger Pye and definitely think it deserved the Newbery Medal.

Favorite Quote

“Well, of course, since Mama was such a young little thing and wore only a size two shoe, and, moreover, ate like a bird, Papa had to marry her. They fell in love at first sight and though she was only seventeen, they got married as soon as all the permissions could be granted.”

 

This book counts toward the Newbery Medal Challenge

 

Review of Yvain ou Le Chevalier au Lion

What was it about?

Calogrenant, one of King Arthur’s knights, recounts the day he was defeated by a knight named Esclados at a magical spring. Hearing how his cousin was humiliated, Yvain vows to avenge the great insult. He follows the path Calogrenant described and reaches the aforementioned spring. Yvain fills the bucket with water and spills it on a nearby stone; as soon as the water splashes on the stone Yvain finds himself caught in a violent storm. When the storm dies down, he is confronted by Esclados – the protector of the spring. But Esclados is no match for Yvain and is defeated with a blow to the skull. At the defeated knight’s castle, Yvain receives protection and an invisibility ring from Lunette, the servant of Esclados’s widow Lady Laudine. Yvain falls in love with the grieving widow, and by some compelling argumentation, Lunette convinces Laudine to marry Yvain. Laudine is preparing to settle down with her new husband when Yvain is suddenly called away by King Arthur and Sir Gawain to participate in the king’s tournaments. Lady Laudine accepts his departure on one condition – that he return within a year. But Yvain’s plans are confounded by those of other men and women who need his assistance, and he fails to keep his promise to his wife. Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (Yvain, the Knight of the Lion) by Chrétien de Troyes follows Yvain on his many quests as a valiant and chivalrous knight-errant.

What did I think of it?

What comes to mind when you think of Arthurian legends? A powerful king who is well loved by his people? A court filled with handsome knights and graceful ladies? These images of King Arthur and his kingdom have inspired countless fantasy novels and movies. But in the 12th century, a French poet named Chrétien de Troyes put forth a different image of Arthur – an irresponsible king whose kingdom is held together by power-hungry, sex-crazed knights. Lancelot is actually quite an irritating character in Le Chevalier de la Charette (the Knight and the Cart). I started reading The Once and Future King by T.H. White (a modern retelling of older Arthurian legends) and I noticed in the reviews on Goodreads and Amazon that people were disappointed by the portrayal of their favorite characters, most notably King Arthur and Sir Lancelot. I suspect that White was more inspired by the French legends than the English ones, because the French legends often resemble Monty Python sketches. Magical objects appear without rhyme or reason, and the characters are as one-dimensional as Flat Stanley (only the setting seems to change). Yet, this is precisely the reason why I prefer the French legends to the English ones. They conform to my sense of humor.

Yvain is a rare Chrétien de Troyes tale because it has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Also, the title character is a pretty compelling knight. He defends the vulnerable and acknowledges the debt he owes others. What was most surprising to me, though, was how exciting Yvain’s adventures were to read. There wasn’t a dull moment in the whole book. The rich commentaries on love are the icing on the cake. If you have only ever read English Arthurian legends or have been disappointed in the past by the French legends you’ve read, you should give Yvain a go. It might prove to be a pleasant surprise.

Favorite Quote

[From the 1963 modern French verse translation by André Mary, published by The Laurel Language Library – now out of print]:

“Il en garde le souvenir cuisant en lui-même, mais l’amour qui l’a envahi et le maîtrise adoucit de son miel cette amertume. Son ennemie emporte son coeur: il aime la créature qui le hait. La dame, à son insu, est vengée de la mort de son mari et bien mieux qu’elle n’eût pu le faire, puisque l’Amour s’en est chargé, l’entremise des yeux. Cette atteinte est plus redoutable que coup de lance ou d’épée: un coup d’épée se guérit vite, quand le médecin y met ses soins et sa peine, mais la plaie d’Amour empire d’autant plus que le médecin est plus proche.”

[My translation]: [Yvain] keeps the painful memory [of Kay’s insults] deep inside of him, but Love who invaded him and masters him calms with its honey this bitterness. His enemy steals his heart: he loves the creature whom he hates. The lady, in time, is avenged of the death of her husband and better than she could have herself, since Love took care of it, the mediator of the eyes. This attack is more dangerous than the blow of a lance or of a sword: a sword’s blow heals quickly, when the doctor cares for it, but Love’s wound is aggravated more as the healer comes nearer.